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No. 901:
Lardner's Natural Philosophy

Today, I trip across the beginning of William James's intellectual odyssey. The University of Houston's College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.

Fifty years ago I began my own long and still unfinished education by building model airplanes and studying drafting. That's why a small event yesterday set off bells in my mind.

A lady at the desk in a Harvard library casually handed me the copy of Lardner's Handbook of Natural Philosophy I'd asked for. I opened it and found an astonishing signature in front. It said: "William James, 1858." This was the very book that the father of the philosophy of pragmatism read when he was only 15.

And what was this odd book that young William James read? Lardner wrote popular handbooks on everything from railroads to Italian history. This richly illustrated volume deals with mechanics -- the mathematics of machines. We read Newton's laws of motion and materials science. Then we move on to mechanisms.

There's a section on clockwork and another on the clockwork movements of stars and planets. The book dances with gears and escapements. We study stamping machines and the great newspaper presses just coming into being. James is no passive reader. In the back, he's penciled in his own graphical construction of the catenary curve -- the pendent shape of a suspension bridge chain.

"The Four Volumes taken together," says Lardner, provide the background in natural philosophy that "is expected in all well educated persons." And William James was on his way to becoming one of the most educated persons on this planet.

James started out by studying art. He tired of that and went into science, then anatomy, then medicine. Next he went off to the Amazon to do field studies in biology with Louis Agassiz. He came back and worked in physiology. That led to an interest in psychology. He broke with 19th-century academic tradition and created a new practical school of clinical psychology.

No sooner had he put a revolution in psychological thinking into motion than he moved off into religion. Psychology, he said, had come to seem like a "nasty little subject." James moved on to other links in a long unfolding chain of ideas.

His essay The Varieties of Religious Experience is stunningly objective reporting of the most subjective thing that could happen to any person. Then James took up philosophy. It is as a philosopher that he laid his final mark on America.

Yesterday I touched the first link in the chain of James's thinking -- a boy's book on mechanics. I know this process, this movement from concrete forms to their own abstractions. James began with graphical art -- beauty that presents itself to the eye. Yesterday I held one end of the catenary, the chain, that James followed into subtler catenations within his own rich mind.

I'm John Lienhard, at the University of Houston, where we're interested in the way inventive minds work.

(Theme music)

Lardner, D., HandBook of Natural Philosophy. London: Walton and Maberly, 1856. (Copy residing in the Houghton Library at Harvard University)